**
English Weights and Measures
**

The following descriptions have been taken from various sources

Most of which are now not on general sale but are either in collections or public libraries

Some are still in use whilst some are not

Some measures are duplicates of others in differing products

Please also note that in
some of the following I have written the small letter *' f'* to represent the letter

This is to give some feeling as to the requirements of those ages.

**M**anors at Domesday (1086) were rated according to their Hidage, and as the extent of a hide has been a matter of dispute, it may be instructive to quote the standard measures of Glastonbury Abbey, as registered in the large MS. Cartulary at Longleat (p.406), alluded to by Canon Jackson in his "Liber Henrici de Soliaco" (1189):

A Farthing Land = Abt. 12 acres

A Furlong or Ferdel = 10 Acres

A Virgate (4 furlongs) = 40 Acres

A Half-yard Land = 20 Acres

A Hide (4 virgates) = 160 Acres

A Knight's Fee (4 Hides) = 640 acres

**SOURCE: -***"Dunmonia and the River Parrett"* by Rev. William H.P. Greswell M.A., F.R.G.S. published 1922 p. 178
- See Also Below....

__ AREA__ - (Square Measure) -

144 Square Inches = 1 Square Foot

12 Square Feet = 1 Square Yard

30 1/4 Square Yards = 1 Square Pole

40 Square = 1 Rood

4 Roods = 1 Acre (4840 Square Yards)

640 Acres = 1 Square Mile

**SOURCE: -** "Workshop Calculations Tables and Formula" by F.J. Camm F.R.S.A published 1941 5th Edition

** Measure of Capacity **-

4 Gills = 1 pint

2 pints = 1 Quart

2 Quarts = 1 Pottle

2 Pottles = 1 Gallon

4 Quarts = 1 Gallon

2 Gallons = 1 Peck

4 Pecks = 1 Bushel

3 Bushels = 1 Bag

4 Bushels = 1 Coombe

8 Bushels = 1 Quarter

12 Bags = 1 Chauldron

5 Quarters = 1 Load or Wey

2 Loads or Wey = 1 Last

**SOURCE: -** "Workshop Calculations Tables and Formulae" by F.J. Camm F.R.S.A published 1941 5th Edition

**Wine Measure**

4 Gills = 1 Pint

2 Pints = 1 Quart

4 Quarts = 1 Gallon

10 Gallons = 1 Anker

18 Gallons = 1 Runlet or Rundlet

311/2 Gallons = 1 Barrel

42 Barrels = 1 Tierce

63 Gallons = 1 Hogshead

2 Tierces = 1 Puncheon

1 1/2 Puncheons = 1 Pipe or Butt

2 Pipes = 1 Tun

**SOURCE: -** "Workshop Calculations Tables and Formulae" by F.J. Camm F.R.S.A published 1941 5th Edition

**Ale and Beer Measure**

4 Gills = 1 Pint

2 Pints = 1 Quart

4 Quarts = 1 Gallon

9 Gallons = 1 Firkin

2 Firkins = 1 Kilderkin

2 Kilderkins = 1 Barrel

1 1/2 Barrels = 1 Hogshead

1 1/3 Hogsheads = 1 Puncheon

1 1/2 Puncheons or 2 Hogs heads = 1 Butt or Pipe

2 Pipes = 1 Tun

**SOURCE: -** "Workshop Calculations Tables and Formulae" by F.J. Camm F.R.S.A published 1941 5th Edition

**Length**

**A LUG**:

An olde unit of length, the same as a Rod, Pole or Perch, varying according to local custom; usually of 16½ feet

Sometimes of 15, 18, 20, or 21 feet - in squared measure is a Square Rod, Pole or Perch.

**Source: -** Oxford English Dictionary

**Various Measures Used on Farms**** **

*[Courtesy of
OLD-ENGLISH-l@rootsweb.com subscribers - 20-Feb-2006]*

{Thatching MaterialsHow Heavy, How Much and How Long" by Colin Chapman

1 Thrave = 2 Kivers [By the 19th century] or Stook

1 Kiver = 12 Sheaves [Also known as Boltings; Bundles; Trusses]

Sheaves were stooked to form a triangular shape - Ʌ

-five sheaves to each side, the ears of corn facing upwards with the sheave butt standing on the ground. Each sheave leant against the opposite one and then one sheave at each end of the stook to hold the shape and protect it from being blown over but at the same time allowing the wind and sun to dry the sheaves and ears of corn.{The writer was quite adroit at this work in his youth}

In Scotland in 1523, 1 Thrave was equal to 4 Sheaves.

Straw Weights

1 Bundle of Straw = 24 Pounds

1 Bolting of Straw = 28 Pounds

1 Truss of Straw = 36 Pounds

Hay Weights

1 Truss of Old Hay = 56 Pounds [Regarded as 'Old' after 29 September]

1 Truss of New Hay = 60 Pounds

MEDICINES

Liquid Measure

60 minims (m) = 1 fluid drachm (ʒ)

8 drachms = 1 fluid ounce

20 ounces = 1 pint (O)

The approximate domestic equivalents to the above measurements are:-

1 minim = 1 drop

1 drachm = 1 teaspoonful

1 ounce = 2 tablespoonfuls

Please note that as the size of spoons vary considerably they should not be used for measuring important medicines.

Measurement of Weight

60 grains (gr) = 1 drachm

8 drachms = 1 ounce

Metric Volume Equivalents

1 litre = approximately 35 fluid ounces

1 cubic centimetre = approximately 17 drops

Metric Weight

1 gramme = approximately 15 grains

OTHER MEASUREMENTS FOUND-

(Some are duplicated due to their relationships - spelling is copied as was written, the letter[f]for the letter[s]although not in every occasion)

The following tables of measure were taken from the book "The Young Man's Beft Companion" by George Fisher - Accomptant - London 1795, owned by James Fisher in 1818.(Please note that some have already been displayed)

A Table of the Parts of Apothecaries Weights

20 Grains = 1 Scruple fer. a Scruple

3 Scruples = 1 Drachm dr. a Drachm

8 Drachms = 1 Ounce oz. an Ounce

12 Ounces = 1 Pound lb. a Pound

By these weights they compound their medicines; but they buy and fell their drugs by Avoirdupoife Weight.

Cloth Measure

4 Nails or 9 inches = 1 qr. of a Yard

4 qrs. or 36 inches = 1 Yard

5 qrs. or 454 inches = 1 Ell (English)

3 qrs. or 27 inches = 1 Ell (Flemish)

6 qrs. or 45 inches = 1 Ell (French)

A Table of Wool Weight

7 lbs make 1 Clove

2 Cloves or 14 lbs make 1 Stone

1 Stone or 28 lbs make 1 Todd

6 Todds and ½ make 1 Wey or 182 lbs.

2 Weys or 364 lbs make 1 Sack

12 Sacks make 1 Laft or 4368 lbs

240 lbs make 1 pack of Wool

Tables of Liquid Measure

Liquid meafure is of two forts,

viz.one for wine brandy Etc, and the other for ale and beer.

Wine Etc.

8 pints = 1 Gallon

42 Gallons = 1 Tierce

63 Gallons = 1 Hogfhead

84 Gallons = 1 Puncheon

2 Hogfhead = 1 Pipe or Butt

2 Pipes or Butts = 1 Tun or 252 Gallons

Note,That fweet oil hath 236 Gallons to the Tun; but oil from Greenland hath 252 Gallons to the Tun.

Note,The wine gallon contains 23 cubic or folid inches by which all liquids are measured, except Beer and Ale.

Beer Measure

8 Pints = 1 Gallon

9 Gallons = 1 Firkin

4 Firkins = 1 Kilderkin

2 Kilderkens = 1 Barrel or 36 Gallons

1 Barrel and ½ or 54 Gallons = 1 Hogshead

Ale Measure

8 Pints = 1 Gallon

8 Gallons = 1 Firkin of Ale, Soap or Herrings

2 Firkins = 1 Kilderkin

2 Kilderkens = 1 Barrel or 32 Gallons

1 Barrel and ½ or 48 Gallons = 1 Hogshead

Note, The Beer and Ale gallons are the fame,Viz.282 folid inches; but with this difference:The Barrel of beer contains 1228 cubic inches or 4 Gallons more than the Barrel of Ale.

In a Tun of Wine are: -

In a Pipe or Butt are:2 Pipes or Buts

2 Hogfheads

6 Tierces

3 Tierces

252 Gallons

126 Gallons

504 Pottles

252 Pottles

1008 Quarts

504 Quarts

2016 Pints

1008 Pints

In a Puncheon are:

In a Hogfhead are:84 Gallons

63 Gallons

168 Pottles

126 Pottles

336 Quarts

504 Quarts

672 Pints

504 Pints

In a Barrel of Beer are:

In a Barrel of Ale are:2 Kilderkins

2 Kilderkins

4 Firkins

4 Firkins

36 Gallons

32 Gallons

72 Pottles

64 Pottles

144 Quarts

128 Quarts

288 Pints

256 Pints

**Dry
Measure**

2 Pints = 1 Quart

2 Quarts = 1 Pottle

2 Pottles = 1 Gallon

2 Gallons = 1 Peck

4 Pecks = 1 Bufhel land measure

5 Pecks = 1 Bufhel Water Measure

4 Bufhels = 1 Comb or Half a Quarter

1 Combs = 1 Quarter

Salt and fea coal are heaped or efle there are five pecks to the bufhel.

In this there are: 2 Weys or 10 Quarter or 80 Bufhels or 320 Pecks or 1280 Pottles or 2560 Quarts or 5120 Pints.

5 Quarters = 1 Wey

2 Weys = 1 Last or 10 Quarters or 5 Fatts or Vatts or 36 Bufhels of fea coal or 1 Chalder.(21 Chalder is accounted a fcore in the River Thames)

In a Wey there are 5 Quarters or 40 Bufhells or 160 Pecks or 320 Gallons or 640 Pottles or 1280 Quarts or 2560 Pints.

NOTE:

By an act AD 1712, the Bufhel is 2178 cubic inches, and a Gallon of this measure is 272¼ cubic inches.

**Long Measure**

3 Barley Corns = 1 Inch

12 Inches = 1 Foot

3 Feet = 1 Yard

3 Feet 9 Inches = 1 English Ell

5 Feet = 1 Geometrical Pace

5 1/2 Yards = 1 Pole, Perch or Rod

6 Feet = 1 Fathom or 2 Yards

40 Poles or 220 Yards = 1 Furlong

8 Furlongs = 1 Mile or 1760 Yards

3 Miles = 1 League

In addition to the above Land Measure, I add the following:

48 Poles make 1 Furlong, or a Quarter of an Acre

160 Poles in length, and one in breadth is one Acre

80 Poles in length, and two in breadth is one Acre

40 Poles in length, and four in breadth is one Acre

4 Poles in length make one Chain

10 Chains in length, and one in breadth make one Acre

*
A hint of Generals, or Things Proper to be known or remembered on
Particular Occasions!*

From "The Young Man's Best Companion"

A Ream of Paper equals 20 Quires

A Quire of Paper equals24 Sheets

A Bale of Paper equals 10 Reams

A Roll of Parchment equals 5 dozen or 60 Skins

A Dicker of Hides equals 10 Skins

A Dicker of Gloves equals 10 dozen pair

A Last of Hides equals 20 Dickers

A load of Timber (Un-hewed) equals 40 Feet

A Chadron of Coals equals 36 Bushels

A Wey of Cheese equals 256 Pounds

A Laft of Corn or Rape seed equals 10 Quarters

A Quarter in England equals 8 Bushels but in Scotland it is 4 Bolls

A Quarter of Pot Afhes, Cod Fifh, White Herrings, Meal, Pitch and Tar equals 12 Barrels

A Quarter of Flax and Feathers equals 17 Cwt of Gun-Powder, 24 Barrels or 2400lbs of Wool, or 4368lbs

A Tun of Wine equals 252 Gallons; of Oil of Greenland, 252 Gallons and Sweet Oil of Genoa equals 236 Gallons

A Ton in weight is 20 Cwt of Iron Etc, but of Lead there is 19½ Cwt and called a Fodder or Fother

A Todd of Wool equals 28 Pounds

A Pack of Wool equals 364 pounds

A Load of Bricks equals 400 and of Plain Tiles it is 1000

A Stone of Fifh is 18lbs, of Wool it is 14lbs - The same for Horseman's weight and of Hay, but Pepper, Cinnamon and Allum have but 13½lbs to the Stone

A Stone of Glafs is 5 lbs and a Seam of is 24 Stone

A Truss of Hay equals 56lbs and a Load is 39 Truffes

**
Note:**

New Hay in June and August ought to be 60 lbs to the Trufs, as per a Statue of 2nd William and Mary 1693.

A Cade of Red Herrings is 900 but of Sprats it is 1000

Of Iron & Shot it is 14lb to the stone

**
The following are Barrels of Sundry
Commodities**

Anchovies 30lb

A double barrel 60lbs

Nuts or Apples 3 Bufhels

Pot Afh or Barilla 200 lbs

White or Black Plates 300 lbs

Candles 10 doz lbs

Salmon or Eels 42 Gallons

Figs
3 Qrs. 14 lbs to 2 C¼ *(Not fully explained)*

Raifons 1 cwt

Oil 31 Gallons and a half

Spanish Tobacco 2 cwt to 3 cwt

Gunpowder 1 cwt

Soap 240 lbs

Butter 224 lbs

Herrings 32 Gallons

**
Things in the wholefale trade bought and fold by the thoufand**

Cuttle Bones - Oranges & Lemons - Chair Nails - Tacks & Tender Hooks - Pomegranates & Tazels - Goofe Quils & Thimbles - Bricks - Clinkers & Flanders Tiles - Billets & Leaves of Horn - Barrel Hoops - Squirrel fkins - Slate & Hilling ftones - Pins & fmall needles by the 1000 dozen

**
Things bought and fold at fixfcore to the hundred**

Banks & Barlings - Barrles and Pipe boards - Bomb fpars & Bow ftaves - Canfpars & Caprevans - Herrings & DEal boards - Nails, Eggs & Cod fifh - Cole, Ling and Newfoundland fifth - ftock fifh of all forts - Ells of Canvas & moft foreign linens - Hogshead ftaves.

Roman Numerals

Numbers were anciently expreffed by letters; and it is neceffary to understand them for the readier reading of dates of years,

frequently ufed in the title pages of books, on funeral monuments and in Roman Hiftory etc.

NumberSignifiesI One V Five X Ten L Fifty CC Two Hundred D or CIC One Thousand M or CCIC Ten Thousand ICC Five Thousand CCIC Ten Thousand ICCC Fifty Thousand CCCCICCCC One Hundred Thousand ICCCCC Five Hundred Thousand CCCCCICCCCC Ten Hundred Thousand or One Million MDCCLXXXVIII The Present Date 1788 M being One Thousand - D Five Thousand - CC Two Hundred - LXXXVIII Eighty Eight

When a letter of inferior value ftands after one of fuperior, its value is to be added thereto

Thus VI, VII and VIII fignify Six-Seven-Eight.

When a letter of inferior value is placed before one of fuperior, then its value is to be taken therefrom

Thus IV-IX-XL-XC fignify Four-Nine-Forty-Ninety.

For further information and immediate conversion facility go to: - http://www.novaroma.org/via_romana/numbers.html

**Page update last on: -**06/04/2016